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Also trusted 800mg myambutol, the neuro-orthopaedist should have a good ref- erence text available, such as the Aicardi text Diseases of the Nervous Sys- tem in Childhood. It is extremely important for physicians caring for children’s motor prob- lems to understand the expected course of the disease. For example, many of the storage disorders are progressive and these children have limited life expectancy, which limits attempts to correct motor impairments that are not Table 2. Significance for Name Primary defect Typical course surgical management Storage diseases intercellular accumulation Most of these have no treatment Hexosaminidase defect, multiple and are progressive Gangliosidoses types Each type has its own course HexA and HexB nonfunctional Tay–Sachs disease due to chromosome 15 defect Short-term survival in childhood Type O gangliosidosis Sandhoff’s disease Multiple subtypes, beta- Clinically like Tay–Sachs GM1 gangliosidosis galactosidase deficiency Rare cases and variable effects Multiple types, beta- Gaucher’s disease glucocerebrosidase deficient Outcome is variable, based on Most patients have the subtype, from rapid course hepatosplenomegly with death in early childhood to Be especially aware of significant relatively mild involvement splenomegly Also, bone lesion from the Sphingomyelinase deficient, storage disease may be present Niemann–Pick disease multiple subtypes The more severe types have rapid Bone marrow may be involved, degeneration and death; some and some patients develop a mild types may have minimal peripheral neuropathy involvement and life into middle Sex-linked deficiency of ceramide adulthood Fabry’s disease trihexoside Foam cells with vacuolated Death is usually from cardiac or cytoplasm develop in muscles, renal failure nervous system, kidneys Females are less affected May begin as severe muscle pain Cerebroside sulfatase deficiency, Renal failure may occur Metachromatic leukodystrophy multiple types Often presents as a gait disorder in childhood May initially look like a neuropathy Adult forms present as behavior Beta-galactocerebrosidase problems Krabbe’s disease (globoid cell deficiency Age of onset, and survival, are May present with slow-onset leukodystrophy) All have deficiencies of lysomal variable hemiplegia or diplegia Mucopolysaccharidosis glucosidase or sulfatase Often the neurologic problems Bone marrow transplantation is are less severe than the systemic used to treat a number of these — ones conditions Hurler’s syndrome Severe neurologic retardation Severe dwarfism — Cervical instability Scheie’s syndrome Types, very mild to minimal Hydrocephalus may develop — problems Hunter’s syndrome Severe dwarfism Mild to moderate neurologic — involvement Sanfilippo’s syndrome Severe progressive neurologic Minimal skeletal problems — involvement Morquio’s syndrome Variable forms but marker bone Cervical instability may cause — involvement spinal cord compression Maroteaux–Lamy’s syndrome No neurologic involvement Nerve entrapment syndromes are Severe dwarfism common Mild to severe bone and — neurologic involvement Sly’s syndrome Very variable Mild to severe bone and — neurologic involvement Mucolipidosis, sialidosis, Many types, all very rare glycoprotein metabolism deficiency Also called cherry red spot Sialidosis type one myoclonus syndrome Slow progression Late onset No other involvement Has a pure intention myoclonus that slowly gets worse with age — Mucolipidosis IV Failing vision and mental delay May develop dystonia after normal infancy 2. Etiology, Epidemiology, Pathology, and Diagnosis 35 Table 2. Significance for Name Primary defect Typical course surgical management Mannosidosis Alpha-mannosidase deficiency Several types, usually with cognitive limits and minimal progression Fucosidosis Fucosidase deficiency Progressive mental retardation Develop significant spasticity Galactosialidosis Neuraminidase and beta- Develops progressive myoclonus Thoracolumbar spinal deformity galactosidase deficiency and extrapyramidal signs may be present Salla disease Sialic acid transport deficiency Mental and motor retardation, Course varies progressive Aspartylglycoaminuria Has mental deterioration in late Causes bone deformities, mitral childhood or adolescence valve insufficiency Pompe’s disease Hypotonia Severe mental retardation Early death Batten disease (infantile form) Neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis Severe brain atrophy Anxiety and autistic behavior Death after a prolonged vegetative state Has repetitive hand movements that may be confused with Rett syndrome Spielmeyer–Vogt–Sjogren Condition starts in middle Slower course (juvenile form) childhood Death in 15–30 years Kufs’ disease (adult form) Present with behavioral changes and dementia Amino acid metabolism Many causes, only those more relevant included Phenylketonuria (PKU) A defect in the hydroxylation of Untreated children develop severe With early dietary treatment phenylalanine to tyrosine; the mental retardation and self-abuse most of the symptoms can be defect may occur in one of two avoided enzymes or two required Requires treatment until age cofactors 4–8 years Hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) Same as PKU Maple syrup urine disease Organic aciduria; many subtypes Disease varies from rapid May cause acute coma progression to later onset or Treatment varies by the specific minimal progression defect Most of these conditions cause most of the problems during periods of stress when the body may depend on protein metabo- lism for energy source; this is especially true during major sur- gical procedures and can usually be avoided by using high-glucose infusion such as a 10% glucose solution intra- and postoperatively Blood pH level needs to be monitored and urine should be monitored for ketosis If proper precuations are not taken, ketoacidosis, hyper- ammonemia, and hyperlacticemia may develop and cause cerebral edema with further neurologic injury Glutaric aciduria Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase Several types Untreated neurologic effects leave deficiency the child with severe dystonia Cognitive process more preserved Stress causes a ketoacidosis, which causes brain injury Neurologic effects can be avoided with early dietary treatment Must take all the same precautions as noted for maple syrup urine disease (continued) 36 Cerebral Palsy Management Table 2. Significance for Name Primary defect Typical course surgical management Homocystinuria Cystathionine beta-synthase Cause mental retardation and Develop dislocated lens deficiency spasticity Also have thromboembolic disorder May present with a Charlie Chaplin-like walk Other common bone deformities include pectus, genu valgum, biconcave vertebra, epimetaphyseal widening Because of the thromboembolic problems, even children should probably have anticoagulation during surgical procedures Sulfite oxidase deficiency During infancy children have poor feeding, severe seizures, and present with quadriplegic pattern motor involvement Usually die in early childhood Tyrosinemia Present with liver failure and Also often complain of severe leg neuropathy pain Course is variable Tetrahydrobiopterin Same pathway as PKU and HPA Children have progressive Clinical course is variable deficiencies (“malignant HPA”) deterioration even with appropriate dietary treatment Children have progressive spasticity and limb rigidity Sometimes with dystonia or athetosis Nonketotic hyperglycinemia Glycine accumulates because it Course is usually with severe cannot be metabolized seizures and short-term survival, although some develop a more typical spastic CP pattern 4-Hydroxybutyric aciduria GABA neurotransmitter Presents with a static hypotonia metabolism error and ataxia Urea cycle disorders Ammonia accumulation causes There are a number of different These conditions are like maple brain injury deficiencies, all with a similar syrup urine disease in that during presentation, but with varying stress periods, such as acute severity sepsis or major surgical procedures, patients must be protected from high protein metabolism, which will cause the ammonia level to raise, running the risk of developing cerebral edema; this can be prevented with high-glucose fluid infusion, usually using 10% dextrose Citrullinemia Hepatomegly common Argininosuccinic aciduria Often have brittle hair Hepatomegly common Arginase deficiency Usually presents as a quadriplegic pattern CP with progressive spasticity Vitamin metabolism disorders Many are autosomal dominant inherited Multiple carboxylase Impairment of the biotin Skin rash, hypotonia, seizures, Symptoms improve with high- deficiency recycling pathway ataxia dose biotin treatment Vitamin B12 metabolism defect Anemia, seizures, mirocephaly, pancytopenia, malabsorption Variable presentation Folate metabolism defect Similar to B12 deficiency 2. Etiology, Epidemiology, Pathology, and Diagnosis 37 Table 2. Significance for Name Primary defect Typical course surgical management Lactic acidosis (respiratory chain Defect in the terminal step of the The workup and diagnosis of disorders) energy production cycle many of these conditions require a skeletal muscle biopsy because the muscle is often involved This biopsy is also how to study mitochondrial function Mitochondrial cytopathy Usually presents in early infancy The response is variable, from or early childhood with delayed long static period to spontaneous motor skills, fatigue, muscle improvement to sudden pains deterioration Multisystem disorders Kearns–Sayre syndrome Normal at birth Develop headaches, mental retar- dation, peripheral neuropathy Mitochondrial myopathy Ragged red muscle fibers Often present with stroke-like High incidence of heart block symptoms between childhood and, if surgery is planned, the and young adulthood team needs to be prepared to insert a cardiac pacemaker Alpers syndrome Many different defects are Autosomal recessive condition of probably causing this clinical progressive spastic quadriplegic syndrome pattern CP syndrome Leigh syndrome Syndrome defined by necrotizing Course is extremely variable but encephalomyelopathy usually progressive, although Probably has multiple molecular there may be long static periods causes Lactic acidosis Pyruvate dehydrogenase Defect of pyruvate entry to Presents with highly variable Some die in early childhood and deficiency mitochondria hypotonia, seizures, failure to others survive long term with a thrive severe quadriplegic CP pattern Mitochondrial fatty acid Very variable with muscle defects weakness, cardiomyopathy, seizures Carnitine deficiency Because of inability to metabolize Presents in childhood with Under stress, such as major protein, depends on glucose for muscle weakness and surgery, must give high-glucose energy cardiomyopathy infusion or there will be no energy even for the heart to function Peroxisomal disorders All have autosomal recessive inheritance Zellweger syndrome Hypotonia Poor swallowing Failure to thrive Develop severe equinovarus feet and flexion contractures Stippled calcification in the bones, especially the patella Adrenoleukodystrophy Same as Zellweger but milder form Refsum’s disease Similar but is the mildest form X-linked Variable, but males are always adrenoleukodystrophy more affected than females Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia Rhizomelic dwarf with joint Calcification in the epiphysis and punctata contractures soft tissues Also with mental retardation Wilson disease Disorder of copper metabolism Early on have facial masking, Later develop a Parkinson-like then develop tremor presentation with psychiatric problems Have hepatic dysfunction When giving medication, must consider liver function Lesch–Nyhan syndrome X-linked Very variable course and usually Develop gouty arthritis presents with hypotonia, torsional dystonia, mental Enzyme defect allowing retardation, self-abuse 38 Cerebral Palsy Management seriously disabling. Alternately, many disorders of intermedullary metabolism have acute insults during toxic events before the diagnosis has been made. With proper management, these disorders become static and mimic similar children with CP. These metabolic disorders often require very specific management pro- tocols during surgery. An example of such a condition is glutaric aciduria type 1, which presents with infants who are normal. When an infant expe- riences a stress, such as a childhood illness with a high fever, an acidosis de- velops that causes damage to the brain, especially the putamen and caudate areas. This insult leaves the child with a wide range of spastic and movement disorders, often with significant dystonia. However, these children must be prevented from becoming acidotic during operative procedures by infusing high levels of glucose, usually using a 10% dextrose solution as the intravenous fluid.
CYP2E1 has a high Km for ethanol and is inducible by ethanol purchase 600mg myambutol with visa. Therefore, the proportion of ethanol metabolized through this route is greater at high ethanol concentrations, and greater after chronic con- sumption of ethanol. Acute effects of alcohol ingestion arise principally from the generation of NADH, which greatly increases the NADH/NAD ratio of the liver. As a conse- quence, fatty acid oxidation is inhibited, and ketogenesis may occur. The elevated NADH/NAD ratio may also cause lactic acidosis and inhibit gluconeogenesis. Ethanol metabolism may result in alchohol-induced liver disease, including hepatic steatosis (fatty liver), alcohol-induced hepatitis, and cirrhosis. The prin- cipal toxic products of ethanol metabolism include acetaldehyde and free radicals. Acetaldehyde forms adducts with proteins and other compounds. The hydroxyethyl radical produced by MEOS and other radicals produced during Ethanol ADH CH CH OH Muscle 3 2 Acetaldehyde Acetaldehyde Acetate NAD+ O NADH ACS CH + H+ 3 + Acetyl CoA NAD ALDH Liver NADH + Acetate TCA + H CO2 Acetate cycle O FAD CH3 Blood (2H) 3NADH, 3H+ Fig. The major route for metabolism of ethanol and use of acetate by the muscle. Many other tissues are adversely affected by ethanol, acetaldehyde, or by the consequences of hepatic dysmetabolism and injury. Genetic polymorphisms in the enzymes of ethanol metabolism may be responsible for individual variations in the development of alcoholism or the development of liver cirrhosis. THE WAITING ROOM A dietary history for Ivan Applebod showed that he had continued his habit of drinking scotch and soda each evening while watching TV, but he did not add the ethanol calories to his dietary intake.
The higher than his previous level of fatty acids enter the adipose cells and combine with a glycerol moiety that is pro- 296 800 mg myambutol fast delivery. The resulting triacylglycerols are stored as large fat total serum cholesterol is 200 mg/dL or less. The remnants of the chylomicrons are cleared from the His triacylglycerol level is 250 mg/dL (normal blood by the liver. The remnants of the VLDL can be cleared by the liver, or they is between 60 and 160 mg/dL). These lipid can form low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which is cleared by the liver or by periph- levels clearly indicate that Mr. Applebod has a hyperlipidemia (high level of lipoproteins eral cells. The ability of humans to store fat appears to be lim- its consequences, such as heart attacks and ited only by the amount of tissue we can carry without overloading the heart. FATE OF AMINO ACIDS IN THE FED STATE The amino acids derived from dietary proteins travel from the intestine to the liver in the hepatic portal vein (see Fig. The liver uses amino acids for the synthesis of serum proteins as well as its own proteins, and for the biosynthesis of nitrogen-containing compounds that need amino acid presursors, such as the CHAPTER 2 / THE FED OR ABSORPTIVE STATE 27 nonessential amino acids, heme, hormones, neurotransmitters, and purine and pyrimidine bases (e. The liver also may oxidize the amino acids or convert them to glucose or ketone bodies and dispose of the nitrogen as the nontoxic compound urea. Many of the amino acids will go into the peripheral circulation, where they can be used by other tissues for protein synthesis and various biosynthetic pathways, or oxidized for energy (see Fig. Proteins undergo turnover; they are constantly being synthesized and degraded.